The origins of Santa Ana began in 1810, when the Spanish governor of California granted Rancho Santiago de Santa Ana to José Antonio Yorba. After the Mexican War of Independence, the Yorba family ranch expanded, becoming one of the largest and most valuable in the region and home to a diverse community in California. One of the most important figures in 19th century Mexico, Antonio López Santa Anna, was a general who led his nation's forces against those of the United States during the war between Mexico and the United States. At the same time, he was also serving one of his numerous terms as president of Mexico.
Santa Anna was a complex and flamboyant person with an impressive ability to persuade others, both soldiers and civilians, to follow him. However, he has also been blamed for always pursuing his own glory rather than the good of Mexico. Some critics believe Santa Anna deserves much of the blame for Mexico's defeat in the war, while others see this dynamic and egocentric general as one of many contributing factors. As a young soldier in the Spanish military, Santa Anna participated in crushing the uprisings that often occurred around Mexico, then called New Spain, while Native Americans and others rebelled against the harsh treatment they received from the Spanish.
As a member of the infantry, and later of the cavalry (soldiers on horseback), Santa Anna was trained in a type of brutal warfare that included the routine execution of prisoners. Later in his life, while leading troops in the Texas Revolution and the Mexican-American War, Santa Anna would demonstrate the deadly influence of this training. With Mexico's independence from Spain, Iturbide soon declared himself emperor, but as he became more dictatorial, he lost popularity. Despite Santa Anna's own lack of understanding or real concern about the meaning of the word republic (a democratic form of government in which power is held by the people, rather than an individual ruler), he joined Guerrero and two other leaders, Guadalupe Victoria (1785-184) and Nicolás Bravo (1787-185), in overthrowing Iturbide and declare Mexico a republic.
Victoria was now elected president of Mexico, while Santa Anna retired to her country farm, Manga de Clavo. For the next few decades, Santa Anna often retired in this way, since he was not very interested in the daily work of the government. He married fourteen-year-old Inés Garcia, who gave birth to Santa Anna five children and would remain a devoted wife for the next nineteen years, despite Santa Anna's frequent relationships with other women. The very liberal Gómez Farías soon began to implement a series of reforms to limit the privileges that the rich, the Roman Catholic Church and the military had traditionally enjoyed.
The members of these groups were horrified to see their power diminish and complained to Santa Anna. Thus, in 1834, he resigned from Gómez Farías and, calling himself the liberator of Mexico, assumed absolute power. That meant it dissolved Congress and reformed the government to concentrate power on Mexico City's national or federal government, while individual states had little power. In addition, no dissent would be allowed.
Attempts by the Mexican government to control the situation in Texas proved ineffective and even increased tension. The problem came to a head after Santa Anna sent troops to Texas as a show of strength. Texans declared themselves independent from Mexico and expelled Mexican forces from several cities. In the first months of 1836, determined to quell this so-called Texas Revolution, Santa Anna himself led an army of 6,000 people on the difficult journey to Texas.
Mexicans' siege of the Alamo, a former mission in the city of San Antonio that had been occupied by the United States. UU. The troops, on March 6, ended with the death of all 189 United States,. In a pattern that was repeated throughout the Santa Anna race, Mexico soon turned to it in a time of need.
In 1838, an armed conflict broke out with France over some unpaid debts that Mexico had with the French. This was called the pastry war because one of those who owed money was a baker. He led the army to victory, but not before losing his left leg in battle. Santa Anna made the most of this injury by having his leg buried with all military honors, thus highlighting his status as a war hero.
But once again, Mexicans became disenchanted with Santa Anna. People disapproved, for example, of the second marriage of their president. Just a few months after the death of his wife Inés from pneumonia, Santa Anna, fifty, married fourteen-year-old María Dolores de Tosta. In December 1844, General Mariano de Paredes y Arillaga (1797-184) forced Santa Anna to leave office.
Santa Anna Jailed While Mexican Officials Discussed the Possibility of Trying Him for Treason. Instead, he was exiled to Cuba. In early 1846, Polk ordered Taylor to cross the Nueces River, which had been the traditional border between Texas and Mexico, and travel about 100 miles south to the Rio Grande, which the United States now claimed as its boundary. Despite threats from Mexican General Mariana Arista (1802-1885), Taylor began building a fort just across the Rio Grande from the Mexican city of Matamoros.
At the end of April, Mexican troops crossed the river and attacked a small group of U.S. Soldiers, killing some of them. Taylor reported the confrontation to Polk, stating that the war was already underway. With this incident as an excuse, the United States officially declared war on Mexico.
However, in early May, even before the declaration of war was signed, Taylor's force defeated Arista's troops in the battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de Las Palmas. Faced with this military emergency, Mexico once again turned to Santa Anna, who managed to convince government officials that it could lead the nation to victory against the Yankees (the Spanish version of Yankee, the popular nickname of U.S. He also managed to trick Polk into allowing him to pass the U.S. Naval blockade (a barrier made with warships) of Mexico by promising to promote peace with the United States.
Santa Anna arrived in Mexico in September, took office as president and, instead of working for peace with the United States, quickly began to assemble and equip an army of twenty thousand that was based in San Luis Potosí. This task would take several months. Meanwhile, Taylor's army was heading west from the Rio Grande to the city of Monterrey. There they met Mexican troops under the command of Major General Pedro de Ampudia (1805-1886) in a tough and bloody battle that included hand-to-hand combat in the streets of the city.
When it ended, the United States had control not only of Monterrey, but of all of northern Mexico. Through an intercepted letter, Santa Anna learned that in January 1847, Polk had ordered that about half of Taylor's army be transferred to the command of General Winfield Scott (1786-1866; see biographical entry), who would soon launch an invasion of Mexico from the coast of Vera Cruz. Convinced that this was the time to attack Taylor's diminished forces, and eager for a victory in the north before focusing on Scott's invasion, Santa Anna marched his huge but still ill-prepared army to Saltillo. The journey of nearly 300 miles was exhausting, and Santa Anna lost about five thousand men along the way, both due to illness and desertion.
Meanwhile, Taylor was pushing his own troops south from Monterrey. However, this brilliant spectacle did not last long, as soon bullets and cannonballs began to fly. The troops were outnumbered, but the higher quality of their weapons and ammunition and the effectiveness of their artillery (very large cannons, such as cannons), as well as the protection offered by the trenches from which they fired, gave them the advantage. At nightfall, a temporary ceasefire was called.
The troops woke up the next morning expecting the battle to continue, but were surprised to see that the enemy had withdrawn. Undoubtedly dismayed by the estimated 3,000 casualties (soldiers killed, injured or missing), while the United States had about eight hundred, Santa Anna had fled during the night, retreating south. Ignoring the loss of so many men, Santa Anna declared the Battle of Buena Vista a glorious victory for Mexico (of course, the United States also won a victory in Buena Vista). However, it was difficult for Mexicans to ignore the evidence.
His army had been repeatedly defeated. Now Scott was ready to lead his Invasion Army from Vera Cruz to Mexico City, the nation's capital. Mexicans were hesitant to believe that Santa Anna, who was clearly more skilled in persuasion and pomp than in military tactics, could protect them from the wicked and brutal Yankees. Once again, Santa Anna had to retreat in a hurry or face even more devastating casualties.
Santa Anna himself was forced to leave many belongings, including a spare wooden leg that made a treasured memory for the U.S. Mexicans had an estimated 1,000 casualties in this short battle, compared to only about four hundred for the U.S. In addition, three thousand Mexican soldiers were captured, although they were released after their weapons were taken away and had promised not to fight again. The forces also took possession of forty-three Mexican cannons and four thousand smaller weapons, as well as ammunition and other supplies.
Mexicans were reeling from the loss of almost half of their total territory, as well as the shame and resentment they felt after being invaded by another country. Many blamed Santa Anna for Mexico's defeat, and the country's new government, led by Pedro María Anaya (1795-185), launched an official investigation into his behavior during the war. Although Santa Anna did not receive a jail sentence as a result of the investigation, she was again ordered to go into exile from the country. He spent the next two years in Jamaica, and then moved to Cartagena, Colombia, where he lived a quiet life on a country estate.
However, Santa Anna's role in public life in Mexico was not over. In the years immediately following the war, the country remained chaotic, with five different liberal presidents occupying power for short periods. Little by little, people seemed to lose their distrust of Santa Anna, remembering only her success in gathering followers. Conservatives seized power in 1853, and one of their leaders, Lucas Alamán, devised a plan to take advantage of Santa Anna's revised popularity.
Santa Anna would serve as interim (temporary) president for one year, after which the country would become a monarchy (governed by a king or queen). Alaman also planned to keep a close eye on Santa Anna and correct him if it became too dictatorial. For the Mexican people, buying Gadsden seemed to be the last straw. They had finally had enough of Santa Anna, and the liberals were able to push him out of office and back into exile.
He spent the next two decades living in Central and South America and the Caribbean, while in Mexico political turmoil continued. Liberals Defeated Conservatives in the Reform War (1857-6). Santa Anna made an unsuccessful attempt to intervene in this situation, and also tried in vain to oppose the liberal administration of the U.S. Meanwhile, Santa Anna worked on his memoirs, in which he portrayed himself as an ardent patriot concerned only with the welfare of Mexico.
When Juárez died in 1874, Santa Anna was allowed to return to Mexico. By then I was eighty years old and in poor health. Two Years After Returning to Mexico, Santa Anna Died. Although he was once Mexico's leading political and military figure, his death went almost unnoticed by most Mexicans.
A writer of letters from Mexico during the Mexican war, detailing some of the incidents of the terrible Buena Vista fight, mentioned that Mexican women were seen hanging around the death camp, with the purpose of helping and helping the injured. A poor woman was found surrounded by the mutilated and suffering of both armies, serving the needs of Americans and Mexicans with impartial tenderness. SPEAK and tell us our Ximena, looking north far away, about the camp of the invaders, about the Mexican matrix, who is losing? who is winning? Are they far away or are they getting close? Look abroad and tell us, sister, where is the storm we heard going?. Dry your tears, my poor Ximena; rest your dear; May his hands bend meekly, put the cross on his chest; May his funeral song be sung from now on, and his funeral masses said: Today, poor heartbroken, the living ask for your help.
Near her, moaning weakly, young and beautiful lay a soldier, torn with a shot and pierced with spears, slowly bleeding his life to death; But, so tenderly before him the lorn Ximena knelt, He saw the eagle of the North shining on the belt of his pistol. With a suffocating cry of horror, she turned her head; With a sad and bitter feeling, she looked back at her dead; But she heard the young man's low groan, and his breath of pain, And again lifted the refreshing water to her dry lips. But the noble women Mexie were still pursuing their holy task, through that long and dark night of sadness, worn out and fainted and lacking food. On weak and suffering brothers, they hung with tender care, and the dying aggressor blessed them in a strange and northern language.
After the Molino del Rey event, there was a need for a large number of troops and enough artillery to defend a city as large as Mexico. The appearance of the city, saving the frequent movement of troops passing through the streets, was truly sad and frightening. The emigration of many families since the beginning of hostilities by the enemy in the Valley of Mexico had deprived this city of the hustle and bustle that is normally observed, a circumstance that was aggravated by the seclusion to which others had resorted, either out of excessive selfishness or faintlessness. The troops of the 12th were about 200 men at the foot of the hill, distributed in groups, assisted by the students of the military college, and a few other forces, which in total did not number 800 men.
Lazo Estrada and other officers who accompanied General Bravo, also gave the troops the most beautiful example of courage, despising the danger to which they were exposed; General Saldaña being especially distinguished, who remained serene in the midst of the rain of stones, that a bomb had thrown a head bomb at him. In the evening, General Santa Anna, himself, entered the forest with a battalion to reinforce the work, which looked east from the side of the cattle pond, and where the enemy directed his fire to evict the troops guarding him. As soon as his presence was noticed, gunfire doubled and a bomb tore apart battalion commander Mendez, a brave officer who had served in the North, killing or wounding thirty soldiers. General Santa Anna ordered the troops to withdraw, and he himself withdrew with his staff to the gate, where he ordered that a work be launched to defend that side of the garden and the foot of the entrance.
At nine o'clock, after finishing, he returned with his reservations to the Palace. For the rest of the night, General Monterde worked assiduously to repair bomb damage, replace shutters, and strengthen fortifications. But time was very limited and peremptory. However, all hope was not lost.
On the 13th, at dawn, the enemy's batteries reopened their fire on Chapultepec much more vividly than the day before. Our defenders, amazed by the bombardment, fatigued, eager to sleep and hungry, were thrown on the rocks by the bayonet or taken prisoner. A company from the New York regiment ascended to the top of the building, where some of the students were still shooting, and who were the last defenders of that Mexican flag that was quickly replaced by the American one. Like her idol Napoleon, Santa Anna was exiled on several occasions after being deposed from power.
It was explored by the Spaniard Gaspar de Portolá in 1769, and later Juan Pablo Grijalva (180) was granted a land concession for the area, which he called Rancho Santiago de Santa Ana and developed it for cattle grazing and agriculture. In addition to the Downtown District and Artist's Village, Santa Ana offers many other cultural and educational facilities for the public, such as the Bower Museum, the Discovery Cube of Orange County, the Orange County Heritage Museum, the Lyon Air Museum and the Santa Ana Zoo. Santa Anna became president on April 20, 1853, and immediately began to strengthen the national government, just as he had during his previous presidencies. The city of Santa Ana was established in 1869, becoming the seat of Orange County when it separated from Los Angeles in 1889. Santa Anna came out of retirement and quickly formed an army to help put Guerrero, who had been the Liberal Party's candidate in the elections, in power.
With his victory over the French, Santa Anna regained his popularity and replaced Bustamente as president in 1841. Downtown Santa Ana hosts many community events, including the Farmers Market, Artwalk, Savor Santa Ana, and music nights. . .